Thursday, May 21, 2020

Common Stereotypes About Africa

In the 21st century, there’s never been more focus on Africa than now. Thanks to the revolutions sweeping through North Africa and the Middle East, Africa has the world’s attention. But just because all eyes happen to be on Africa at the moment doesn’t mean myths about this part of the world have been dispelled. Despite the intense interest in Africa today, racial stereotypes about it persist. Do you have any misperceptions about Africa? This list of common myths about Africa aims to clear them up. Africa Is a Country What’s the No. 1 stereotype about Africa? Arguably, the biggest stereotype is that Africa’s not a continent, but a country. Ever hear someone refer to African food or African art or even the African language? Such individuals have no idea that Africa’s the second largest continent in the world. Instead, they view it as a tiny country with no distinct traditions, cultures or ethnic groups. They fail to realize that referring to, say, African food sounds just as odd as referring to North American food or the North American language or the North American people. Africa’s home to 53 countries, including island nations along the continent’s coast. These countries contain diverse groups of people who speak a variety of languages and practice a wide range of customs. Take Nigeria—Africa’s most populous country. Among the nation’s population of 152 million, more than 250 distinct ethnic groups live. While English is the former British colonys official language, the dialects of ethnic groups indigenous to the West African nation, such as Yoruba, Hausa, and Igbo, are commonly spoken as well. To boot, Nigerians practice Christianity, Islam and indigenous religions. So much for the myth that all Africans are alike. The most populated nation on the continent certainly proves otherwise. All Africans Look the Same If you turn to popular culture for images of people on the African continent, you’re likely to notice a pattern. Time and time again, Africans are depicted as if they’re one and the same. You’ll see Africans portrayed wearing face paint and animal print and all with nearly pitch black skin. The controversy surrounding singer Beyonce Knowles’ decision to don black face for French magazine L’Officiel is a case in point. In a photo shoot for the magazine described as â€Å"a return to her African roots,† Knowles darkened her skin to a deep brown, wore splotches of blue and beige paint on her cheekbones and leopard print clothing, not to mention a necklace made out of bone-like material. The fashion spread sparked public outcry for a number of reasons. For one, Knowles portrays no particular African ethnic group in the spread, so which roots did she pay tribute to during the shoot? The generic African heritage L’Officiel claims Knowles honors in the spread really just amounts to racial stereotyping. Do some groups in Africa wear face paint? Sure, but not all do. And the leopard print clothing? That’s not a look favored by indigenous African groups. It simply highlights that the Western world commonly views Africans as tribal and untamed. As for the skin-darkening—Africans, even sub-Saharan ones, have a range of skin tones, hair textures, and other physical traits. This is why some people pegged L’Officiel’s decision to darken Knowles’ skin for the shoot unnecessary. After all, not every African is black-skinned. As Dodai Stewart of Jezebel.com put it: â€Å"When you paint your face darker in order to look more ‘African,’ aren’t you reducing an entire continent, full of different nations, tribes, cultures, and histories, into one brown color?† Egypt Isn’t Part of Africa Geographically, there’s no question: Egypt sits squarely in Northeast Africa. Specifically, it borders Libya to the West, Sudan to the South, the Mediterranean Sea to the North, the Red Sea to the East and Israel and the Gaza Strip to the Northeast. Despite its location, Egypt is often not described as an African nation, but as Middle Eastern—the region where Europe, Africa, and Asia meet. This omission stems mostly from the fact that Egypt’s population of more than 80 million is heavily Arab—with up to 100,000 Nubians in the South—a drastic difference from the population of sub-Saharan Africa. Complicating matters is that Arabs tend to be classified as Caucasian. According to scientific research, the ancient Egyptians—known for their pyramids and sophisticated civilization—were neither European nor sub-Saharan African biologically, but a genetically distinct group. In one study cited by John H. Relethford in the Fundamentals of Biological Anthropology, ancient skulls belonging to populations from sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, the Far East and Australia were compared to determine the racial origin of ancient Egyptians. If Egyptians did indeed originate in Europe, their skull samples would closely match those of ancient Europeans. Researchers found, however, that this wasn’t the case. But the Egyptian skull samples weren’t similar to those of sub-Saharan Africans either. Rather, â€Å"the ancient Egyptians are Egyptian,† Relethford writes. In other words, Egyptians are an ethnically unique people. These people happen to be situated on the African continent, though. Their existence reveals Africa’s diversity. Africa Is All Jungle Never mind that the Sahara Desert makes up one-third of Africa. Thanks to Tarzan films and other cinematic portrayals of Africa, many mistakenly believe that jungle occupies most of the continent and that ferocious beasts roam its entire landscape. Black activist Malcolm X, who visited several African countries before his assassination in 1965, took issue with this depiction. He not only discussed Western stereotypes of Africa but also how such stereotypes resulted in black Americans distancing themselves from the continent. â€Å"They always project Africa in a negative light: jungle savages, cannibals, nothing civilized,† he  pointed out. In reality, Africa houses  a wide range of vegetation zones. Only a small portion of the continent includes jungle or rainforests. These tropical areas are located along the Guinea Coast and in the Zaire River Basin. Africa’s largest vegetation zone is actually savanna or tropical grassland. Moreover, Africa’s home to urban centers with populations in the multimillions, including Cairo, Egypt; Lagos, Nigeria; and Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. By 2025, more than half of the African population will reside in cities, according to  some estimates. Black American Slaves Came From All Over Africa Largely due to the misconception that Africa’s a country, it’s not uncommon for people to assume that black Americans have ancestors from all over the continent. In reality, the slaves traded throughout the Americas originated specifically along Africa’s western coast. For the first time, Portuguese sailors who’d previously traveled to Africa for gold returned to Europe with 10 African slaves in 1442, PBS  reports. Four decades later, the Portuguese built a trading post on the Guinean shore called Elmina, or â€Å"the mine† in Portuguese. There, gold, ivory, and other goods were traded along with African slaves—exported for weapons, mirrors, and cloth, to name a few. Before long, Dutch and English ships began arriving at Elmina for African slaves as well. By 1619, Europeans had forced a million slaves into the Americas. Altogether, 10 to 12 million Africans were forced into servitude in the New World. These Africans were â€Å"either captured in warring raids or kidnapped and taken to the port by African slave traders,† PBS notes. Yes, West Africans played a key role in the transatlantic slave trade. For these Africans, slavery was nothing new, but African slavery in no way resembled North and South American slavery. In his book, the  African Slave Trade, Basil Davidson likens slavery on the African continent to European serfdom. Take the Ashanti Kingdom of West Africa, where â€Å"slaves could marry, own property and even own slaves,† PBS explains. Slaves in the United States enjoyed no such privileges. Moreover, while slavery in the U.S. was linked to skin color—with blacks as servants and whites as masters—racism was not the impetus for slavery in Africa. Plus, like indentured servants, slaves in Africa were typically released from bondage after a set amount of time. Accordingly, slavery in Africa never lasted across generations. Wrapping Up Many myths  about Africa date back centuries. In the modern day, new stereotypes about the continent have emerged. Thanks to a sensationalistic news media, people worldwide associate Africa with famine, war, AIDS, poverty and political corruption. This isn’t to say that such problems don’t exist in Africa. Of course, they do. But even in a nation as wealthy as the United States, hunger, abuse of power and chronic illness factor into everyday life. While the continent of Africa faces enormous challenges, not every African is in need, nor is every African nation in crisis. Source Relethford, John. Fundamentals of Biological Anthropology. 2 edition, McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages, October 18, 1996.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Theme Of Ambition In Macbeth - 1213 Words

Ambition, a trait which underlines success, but while unchecked can lead to self or societal corruption. In William Shakespeare’s tragedy, â€Å"Macbeth†, a brave general falls into tyranny and paranoia after he acts immorally upon the witches prophecies. Macbeth’s pursuit of long lasting power reveals the consequences of hubris and unchecked ambition, which ultimately leads to the the deterioration of his human nature and the corruption of the kingdom. Through the use of thematic motif, the theme of Macbeth’s unchecked ambition and hubris is examined through his struggle to alter and actuate fate, his haunting hallucinations, and the apparitions. Macbeth’s attempt to determine his fate illustrates his overarching self-confidence and the†¦show more content†¦Furthermore, the deterioration of his human nature is shown whilst learning of Fleance’s health. The apparition of Banquo’s eight heirs and a last who bears a glass proves to Macbeth that his attempt to change fate has failed. Macbeth declares, â€Å"Horrible sight! Now I see ‘tis true; For blood-bolter’d Banquo smiles upon me, And points at them for his† (4.1.120-122). Macbeth’s inability to accept his unfortunate fate, further drags his mind into chaos. His ambition and hubris acts lead to the death of Banquo and his own struggles with accepting his fruitless crown. Ultimately, fate leads to the downfall of Macbeth by unleashing his ambition, supporting the theme. Moreover, Macbeth’s constant paranoia forms hallucinations, illustrating the thesis of how unchecked ambition can lead to madness. His burden with killing is holy king is overpowered by Lady Macbeth’s insults of Macbeth’s manhood. While preparing for Duncan’s murder, Macbeth’s guilty conscience is represented through a dagger as he states, â€Å"Is this a dagger which I see before me, the handle toward my hand? [...] thy blade and dudgeon gouts of blood, Which was not so before. There’s no such thing. It is the bloody business which informs Thus to mine eyes.† (2.1.33-49). Covered with blood, the dagger displays the wicked course of action Macbeth has decided to take. The hallucination underlines the juvenile stages of Macbeth’s decline into tyranny. Macbeth’s ambitionShow MoreRelatedThemes Of Ambition In Macbeth1038 Words   |  5 PagesShakespeares Macbeth, means that the blood of the victim will seek out the blood of the murderer; in this case, that is Macbeth. This play is full of many central themes that display the different sides of the characters. Although Macbeth proves to be very power hungry; greed, ambition, and also revenge fuel the individuals in this play, whether it be for the right or wrong reasons. Ambition, a strong desire to do or achieve something, is a theme that shows throughout all of Macbeth. The most ambitiousRead MoreTheme Of Ambition In Macbeth1277 Words   |  6 PagesShakespeare’s play of Macbeth tells a tragedy that was caused by the major theme of ambition, which is greatly emphasized throughout the story by having Lady Macbeth, a key character whose ambition will push her husband Macbeth to the edge along with his flaw of being too ambitious where the two become the driving force of the play that will eventually seal their fate. In the play, Macbeth who is the main character has the flaw of having too much ambition but his conscience will hold back his desiresRead MoreTheme Of Ambition In Macbeth1552 Words   |  7 PagesIn the play, Macbeth, written by William Shakespeare, ambition is the key theme throughout the plot. It is the sole reason the events occur as they do. Many refer to Macbeth as the play of ambition due to this very reason. However, as we read through the play we begin to see effects of each character’s desires on themselves as well as those who surround them. We see some characters follow their ambition through violent ways while some achieve it through manipulation. Three characters in particularRead MoreTheme Of Ambition In Macbeth917 Words   |  4 PagesMacbeth Essay In the play Macbeth, there are several different themes used by the author (Shakespeare). Some of the themes that are used in the play are ambition, guilt, things are not what they seem, and natural vs unnatural. Every theme used in the play is very important to the story. Ambition is one of the themes that is used in the play that are very important to the story. Most of the characters are shown to have ambition towards something at some point or another throughout Macbeth. OneRead MoreTheme Of Ambition In Macbeth876 Words   |  4 PagesShakespeare’s 17th century play Macbeth, is a timeless tale of fate, power, and the consequences of ambition. Despite vastly different interpretations across the centuries due to different cultural and historical contexts, the story remains powerful and relevant today because of its universal themes. Since the play was essentially written for King James I, Shakespeare heavily reinforces the king’s own beliefs and values. Although we do not follow these doctrines in the present day, the literary techniquesRead MoreTheme Of Ambition In Macbeth754 Words   |  4 PagesOne theme in Macbeth is ambition. We see all different types of ambition through out the story. The first instance is when Macbeth sends a letter to his wife tell her what the weird sisters said. He told Lady Macbeth that they said he would become king after becoming Thane of Cowdar. He also told him wife that he would to anything to make sure that comes true. After Lady Macbeth read this she wanted to make sure her husband would become king. She has a few concerns though, To catch the nearest way:Read MoreTheme Ambition In Macbeth985 Words   |  4 Pagesconsequences. Macbeth was written in 1606 by Shakespeare. It is important that you understand the text in order for you to know what is going on in the play. Federigo’s Falcon was written in the 14th Century after the Black Plague. The story was told the 5th day of the journey. Beowulf is an Old English epic poem that has 3182 long lines. It is important because it is written in Old English and is the oldest poem. It was written in the time between the 8th and the 11th century. The theme ambition is seenRead MoreThe Themes Of Ambition In Shakespeares Macbeth85 3 Words   |  4 Pagesdifferent themes displayed in Shakespeares famous play Macbeth. Many of these themes play with nature, the supernatural, and fate. From ghosts to horses eating each other the play uses symbolism, language, and characters to portray these themes. During the play the audience learns of several themes such as ambition, guilt, fate versus free will, nature versus the unnatural, and how things are not always as they seem. Anyone who has read or seen Macbeth knows that his great undoing was his ambition. AmbitionRead MoreTheme Of Ambition In Macbeth915 Words   |  4 PagesThe undeniable power of unbridled ambition and its ramifications are extensively portrayed within William Shakespeare’s tragedy; Macbeth. Within this play, ambition is portrayed as a corrupting and unquenchable force through the main concepts of mental imbalance, supernatural behaviors and betrayal. The consuming desires of Macbeth and their repercussions are vividly enhanced through the use of various expressive literary techniques. Ultimately, Macbeth is a play that explores and reiterates theRead MoreThe Theme Of Ambition In Macbeth And Enders Game880 Words   |  4 PagesAmbition in human nature is so powerful that it can blind one’s vision of achieving success. Both Lady Macbeth’s ambition from Shakespeare’s MacBeth and Peter’s ambition from Card’s Ender’s Game blinds judgement and logic, and they eventually end up more harming than succeeding. In the play MacBeth by Shakespeare, MacBeth is strangely met by three witches, who declares his prophecy of being king, but later losing the crown. Lady MacBeth ambitious goal for MacBeth remain king results in her going

Test Test Free Essays

1. Chapter 1? The Business and Society Relationship Question TF #1 Business can do just about anything it wants because we do not live in a socially conscious environment. a. We will write a custom essay sample on Test Test or any similar topic only for you Order Now True *b. False 2. Chapter 1? The Business and Society Relationship Question TF #2 The business environment in current times, the first decade of the 21st century, can best be described as turbulent. *a. True b. False 3. Chapter 1? The Business and Society Relationship Question TF #3 When speaking of business in the collective sense, the textbook will most often be focusing on big business. *a. True b. False 4. Chapter 1? The Business and Society Relationship Question TF #4 Pluralism is a condition in which there is a concentration of power among society’s groups and organizations. a. True *b. False 5. Chapter 1? The Business and Society Relationship Question TF #5 Stakeholders are the owners of shares in a corporation. a. True *b. False 6. Chapter 1? The Business and Society Relationship Question TF #6 Common Cause and the U. S. Chamber of Commerce are examples of general purpose interest groups. *a. True b. False 7. Chapter 1? The Business and Society Relationship Question TF #7 Business interacts with only a limited number of stakeholder groups. . True *b. False 8. Chapter 1? The Business and Society Relationship Question TF #8 Affluence refers to the level of wealth, disposable income, and standard of living of a society. *a. True b. False 9. Chapter 1? The Business and Society Relationship Question TF #9 The authors of the textbook lay the primary responsibility for business’s probl ems on the media. a. True *b. False 10. Chapter 1? The Business and Society Relationship Question TF #10 The common perception of business power is that there is too little of it to provide a balance with other social institutions. a. True *b. False 11. Chapter 1? The Business and Society Relationship Question TF #11 Power is only manifest when it is used purposefully. a. True *b. False 12. Chapter 1? The Business and Society Relationship Question TF #12 The social contract is the set of rights and duties imposed on citizens by their government. a. True *b. False 13. Chapter 1? The Business and Society Relationship Question TF #13 The social contract in the modern era is changing rapidly and dramatically. *a. True b. False 14. Chapter 1? The Business and Society Relationship Question TF #14 Ethics refers to issues of right and wrong, fairness, and justice. *a. True How to cite Test Test, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Intramuros a Must See free essay sample

Less than an hour away from the hustle and bustle of hectic cities surrounding the capital of the Philippines enters a whole different world. Before knowing the place being referred too, it must be kept in mind that if every nation is like a human body then it must be right to consent that the country’s capital city is its heart. Therefore as it pulses with life, it also pups the same to other parts of the nation body and vice versa. This is especially true about Metro Manila which itself is made up of several smaller cities and a handful of municipalities. But this capital, Manila, also has a heart of its own: one entirely surrounded by stone walls, one that had once dictated the country’s destiny for a long time and city which was being referred to is none other than Intramuros. At its peak, Intramuros was where piety was just as powerful as politics. We will write a custom essay sample on Intramuros a Must See or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It was not only where colonial Manila’s most prominent colleges, deluxe residences and most respected government offices were located, but also the grandest of churches. In this prime, the Walled City vibrated with vitality, throbbed with so much activity. Far from a bleeding heart, it had rules the rest of the country mightily, pounding its will on the people. Today, efforts to preserve the Walled City, and revive its illustrious past are stronger than ever. The present generation of Filipinos has come to realize its value as a national heritage as in the days of our forefathers. Keeping this in mind that Intramuros is a priceless treasure that is a must to share with the world which then leads towards the thesis statement of the research Intramuros is the best place to visit in Manila to see the glimpse of the past and its beauty. This research will be tracked through the means of transportation, places, food, and souvenirs to persuade the tourists on why to tour Intramuros and at the same time to inform them about the details they should know if they choose to tour Intramuros. BODY: Intramuros being considered as Manila’s one of the top tourists spots and a place where most people go relieve themselves with the history of Manila and the whole Philippines is quite big as it was the capital of the Philippines during the Spanish Era. Therefore the mode of transportation needed to explore the Walled City should be the first thing a tourist should think about. There are many ways to tour around Intramuros and these can either be by walking, by riding a pedicab, by hiring a Kalesa, or by going for a tour program. One of the ways to tour Intramuros is touring by foot which is the cheapest mode of travel and the most tiresome one. However, there are many people who prefer to walk when they are travelling. Therefore it should not be hassle since Intramuros is one of the most pedestrian friendly cities known. Touring by foot can be such a time consuming way since Intramuros is such a big city and it might take at least four-five hours to complete the wholesome tour. But on the other hand, this type of tour can give a great view of the history of Intramuros and Manila as there would not be anything blocking the eyesight. Hence according to Mr. George, if touring by foot is the option, it is advisable to bring a map of the walled city to plan the best path that can be taken for the tour and it is also advisable to bring an umbrella to avoid being scorched by the midday sun (Personal comm. Nov 3, 2011). The second way to tour Intramuros is by riding a pedicab which is a great alternative of touring Intramuros by foot. Pedicab is a bicycle that has a covered sidecar and operates somewhat like a rickshaw with an attached seat for two passengers. Riding a pedicab allows in-depth touring that’s otherwise seen only in bikes or walking tours therefore it is considered to be an ingenious way of moving inside the Intramuros since the pedicab drivers in Intramuros knows the ins and outs of Intramuros like the palm of their hands. For tourists, these pedicab drivers already have their route that they follow to tour their clients. Most of them have pamphlets about the tourist spots inside the walled city. Pedicabs can be hired for 100 pesos hour and it can take at least two hours to go and visit the interesting places. Lastly keeping in mind it is one of the Filipinos ways of addressing the need for environmental-friendly transportation (HealthBridge, 2010). The third and one of the best ways to tour Intramuros is hiring a Kalesa. Kalesa is the Tagalog word for a horse-drawn carriage which came to light in the Philippines during the 18th century by the Spaniards. At that period, this mode of transportation was used only by the nobles and high ranked officials who could afford it. But nowadays Kalesa are rarely used in the streets and are commonly seen in famous tourists’ spots and rural areas. Therefore to bring back the reminiscences on how Spaniards used to travel around Philippines, it is highly recommendable to hire a Kalesa while touring Intramuros depending on the budget. Kalesa are considered to be more expensive than the pedicabs nevertheless it can accommodate more people depending on their sizes. The price range varies from 350 pesos to 600 pesos for that reason its better to negotiate with the driver/kutchero before starting the tour as some of them rip off their passengers (Ahab, 2010). These kutcheros have a quite outstanding knowledge about Intramuros hence the two hour trip around Intramuros is worth it while riding a Kalesa . The last and final way to tour Intramuros is hiring a tourists or travel agencies that offer touring services inside this walled city. This is the most expensive of all mode of travelling inside the wall city however there are some benefits to it for instance the tourist guides would be a professional one which can enlighten their tourists with the history of every places in Intramuros thoroughly. This tour program will make the tourists ride on horse drawn carriages which are almost the same as the ones used during Spanish times that are better than the Kalesas plying around the walled city. An example of a tour program is â€Å"If These Wall Could Talk† by Carlos Celdran. This tour program led by Carlos basically uses a carriage that looked like it was owned by a royalty and the exceptional way Carlos tours around the tourists with his narration about the history of Philippines was like watching a theatrical act. This example of tour program lasts for at least three hours maximum with bringing the tourists basically everywhere in Intramuros and costs more than 700 pesos each person (Guevara, 2008). Considering all the options given above regarding transportation, choosing the best mode should come in versatile depending on the budget and time the tourists have. The main goal for travelling to Intramuros is to enjoy as much as possible with the right transportation guiding the way towards the past and inner beauty of the Walled City. After choosing the right mode of transportation, the places in Intramuros should come into an account to make the tourist wonder what they are about to see. Intramuros is known for its historical destinations therefore with 0. 67 sq. mi. lot size, it is advisable if there will be a well prepared plan to tour Intramuros. In the preparation to visit the Walled City the following aspects should be considered to make the tour worthwhile and these are as follow: best time of the year to visit Intramuros, operating hours of the places to visit in Intramuros, appropriate things to bring and clothes to wear in touring Intramuros and the most important are the places to visit. There are two seasons in the Philippines which are summer and rainy season therefore to discover Intramuros it is better to think about which season suits the best. Summer is when the flowers bloom and start of vacation of the students and professionals, it’s a great chance to go unwinding. The advantage of summer is that the sun is up most of the time and during this season the rainy days are rare which is a great chance to visit and appreciate places like the walls with its bastions and ports and also the beauty of the famous churches in the Intramuros, the old Spanish houses like Casa Manila, the Bahay Tsinoy, the monuments and the plazas and the Palacio de Gobernador. But there’s a disadvantage of summer. According to Mr. George (Personal comm. , Nov. , 2011) during summer the sun is at its peak so the temperature is high. Touring with this kind of temperature is not a comfortable idea. Well there’s the counterpart of summer it is the rainy season. In this season the temperature is fresh and cool and the sun is not at its peak. But then rainy days are more frequent during this season. Unfortunately there are places in In tramuros that are easily flooded when it rains. Therefore there are chances of cancelling the tour in Intramuros since the mode of transportation would not be easily available and at the same time some of the well known places may be closed. Once the season is chosen to visit the Walled City, one must know about the operating hours of the places. According to Mr. George (Personal comm. , Nov. 3, 2011) there are some places in Intramuros that are under construction and renovations and some became restricted places. These constructions and renovations may affect the schedule of the operating hours of these places because some are closed for a while to avoid casualties and provide safety for tourist. Mr. George (Personal comm. , Nov. , 2011) said that the construction and renovations are inside Fort Santiago and some parts of the walls for example near the Pasig River and there are also under going excavations like at the ruins of Intendencia. While these places are under construction and renovation, still there are other places that are open on their normal schedule which is from open from 8 am – 5 pm daily (Philippines-hotels, 2011) and even if Fort Santiago is under construction and renovation there are still plac es open to public. Fort Santiago is open from 8 am – 6 pm daily (Javellana, 2011). The appropriate things needed and clothes to wear should also come in consideration before exploring Intramuros. Mr. George (Personal comm.. , Nov. 3, 2011) suggested to bring umbrella and to wear a hat for the heat of the sun and also he suggested wearing a comfortable clothes like maong and t-shirt and maybe Sunday dress because some places have dress code like the church which doesn’t allow shorts inside. Also bring a bag for souvenirs and for things to be brought upon touring and a bottled water (about, 2011) to prevent dehydration because the temperature is hot in Manila especially at noontime. And the most important is to not forget to bring money for the expenditure while touring Intramuros. Finally when all things are planned and set, the tourists should be enlightened with the places they will or might visit while touring the Walled City to see the beauty of the past. There are a lot of places to choose from for a visit. Like for example the San Agustin Church which is the oldest church standing in the Philippines, Manila Cathedral which symbolizes the importance of the Church in the Philippines, Fort Santiago where the Philippine national hero Jose Rizal was prisoned and his last steps where seen before execution, Casa Manila which is the museum of the era’s architecture and lifestyle, Bahay Tsinoy, the walls with its bastions and ports, the plazas like Plaza Moriones and Plaza Roma, and the monuments like Monument de Magallanes, monument to King Carlos IV and monument to Simon de Anda ( Javellana, 2003). So, considering these aspects about places, the tour if well planned would be smooth and most likely fool-proof. Therefore the best plan in touring Intramuros is first to visit during the middle of the rainy season and summer season which starts from October till February to avoid at most possible chance the disadvantage of the two seasons. Also Mr. George (Personal comm. , Nov. 3, 2011) said start the tour during 6 am up until 10 pm or 3 pm onwards to have a more comfortable time while touring inside and if the tour starts as early as possible the more the time can be allotted to explore each and every places. Secondly, knowing the operation hours can give a hint on how to arrange the places to avoid missing any places that’s included in the plan like for example San Agustin church must come first before Fort Santiago because San Agustin church closes earlier than Fort Santiago. And then bring all the needed things to bring and don’t forget to wear the right clothes as Mr. George (Personal comm. , Nov. 3, 2011) reminded to also avoid missing a place if ever there’s a dress code in it like for example as said earlier the church that has a dress code as to not wear shorts. And if done considering these three factors then there’s a bigger chance that every possible place in Intramuros can be visited because everything is prepared and there’s no hindrances or any problems at most during the tour. Then touring Intramuros will be much fun and at the same time will unleash the history in the most appropriate and striking manner. Following the exploration of the historical monuments and destinations located inside Intramuros, the tourists are then ready to be acquainted with the food establishments found throughout the Walled City. One of the most popular food establishments is the sidewalk food establishment which could be found throughout the streets. Some of the sidewalk food establishments that can be found are: The Katunan which can be found at the sides of both LPU, and Mapua, Tiendas Mertaniya which is located in front of Mapua and stretches towards LPU, and last but not the least the qwek-qwek stalls or carts which is found basically everywhere. The ubiquitous activity of selling ready to eat foods, or also called as street foods, is one of the basic daily activity in the busy street of Intramuros. This activity reflects the Filipino local culture, especially the different roles of men and women in the society. Lighter and easier task are mostly given to women, while more profound and tougher task are given to men. For example, men sell soybean curd, or also known as â€Å"taho† in Filipino, which requires them great physical strength and stamina to carry their merchandise while women stay inside sidewalk food establishments, to cook, serve the costumers, and wash their wares (Weightman, 2010). The meal, snacks and refreshments served on the streets of Intramuros, provide for a wide variety of costumers’ tastes and range from traditional recipes. There are different and plenty of varieties of ready to eat foods accessible on this sidewalk food establishments which vary from: manioc, chips, eggrolls, and meal of rice with meat, fish, or chicken, along with a side dish served on a plate (Manahan, 2001). Therefore in the context of rapid urbanization, ready to eat foods or street foods, are becomingly increasing important as both as cheap, and quick meal option to your consumers and these sidewalk food establishments in Intramuros mostly caters students since it complements with the busy life of students but at the same time it can enrich the food quality within the tourists as well. On top of that the price of ready to eat foods or street foods ranges from fifty cents to 80 pesos which is prominently within the budget required. Though the sidewalk food establishments are quite popular in Intramuros, the restaurants situated in this place should also be taken into account. These restaurants are as follows: Illustrado, Casa Marinero, Barbara’s restaurant and many more. The said restaurants are known in their own perspective. They are designed in a way that can reveal how Spaniards used to dine during the invasion of the Philippines and some are designed to promote the respect of the Christianity religion. In their main dining room, oth families with small children and older women dining â€Å"out with the girls† could be seen sharing the family-style portions at tables surrounding a grand piano at which a live pianist plays on Saturdays. Since Filipinos love to eat, sing and be entertained, Intramuros is an opportunity to merge food and entertainment. This can also show the tourist one of the distinctiveness of the Filipinos. Last but not the least, a tour cannot be complete without having the k nowledge about the souvenir shops since it is the things bought in these shops that brings back the memories to treasure. The art galleries, antique shops and souvenir ships in Intramuros are considered to be one of the best souvenir ships in Manila. These souvenir shops are still existing and thriving money-wise because of the tourist influx in this walled city located inside the metro. The three famous souvenir shops located in Intramuros are Papier Tole Shop, Silahis Arts and Artifacts, and  Mananzan Handicrafts. The Papier Tole Shop was established in 1668 as major hub for recycled paper products. The Spanish era left a very important contribution to the Filipino people by utilizing their artistic talent and skills as it leaves unique masterpieces for the unique paintings in 3D or in watercolour, paper dolls, necklaces and other paper products (Travel Man, 2011). The shop was given the name Papier Tole as the name is signifies an art technique in which part or all image is raised from the surface to give a three dimensional effect which enhances the natural shape of image (The Papier Tole, 2005). The products found in Papier Tole shop are mostly engrossed by the 3D effects on the building art and related works. Although the ship is now incorporated with other indigenous art, paper products are still the highlights of the souvenir shop. The Papier Tole mostly attracts the tourists but in some instances there are students who take time from their busy schedule to go and visit the souvenir as the price ranges from 5 to 4000 pesos depending on the size of the product. The second souvenir shop to be considered is the Silahis Arts and Artifacts which was established in 1966. This shop is engaged in designing, producing, retailing and exporting the finest of handmade Philippine product. The main concern includes the principles such as indigenous esigns, native resources, and the spirits that have used them in everyday life (Silahis Center, 2003). The products found in this souvenir shop try to create a deeper understanding of the many-faceted heritage of the Philippines and its people through a greater appreciation of their culture and crafts. The price ranges from 10 pesos to around 2500 pesos an d it attracts both the tourists and the students. Finally the souvenir shop, Mananzan Handicrafts, opened its doors for the tourists back in 1968 at the basement of Manila Pavilion but now it is located right in the heart of Intramuros. This souvenir shop welcomes thousands of tourists from all over the world, balikbayans, and local buyers and provides them with the utmost in shopping convenience. According to Mr George, the grace and dignity of the quality of things can be found in this souvenir shop and gives a guarantee that would make the tour in Intramuros worth remembering (Personal Comm. , Nov 3, 2011). The products that are found in this souvenir shop are made by different tribal groups and have a little taste of the Spanish Era. The Mananzan Handicrafts carries extremely wide and interesting selection of Philippines-made products from all over the country. Therefore not only is the shop a source of unique and affordable souvenirs for tourists, it is also an exhibit of the Filipino’s world-renowned ingenuity and outstanding craftsmanship. The price range varies from 20 pesos to 1500 pesos. It is better not to spend too much money therefore here are few tips to help spend the money wisely in the souvenir shops. First, the souvenir items that are environmental-friendly or products from the recycled materials are the in-thing these days. Therefore items such as native bags, paper mache are few of the many things that should be considered. Second, items that are affordable should be chosen only if it is unique from this country. Lastly, budget everything before considering the things to by. Keeping this in mind, there is one thing that should be taken whole-heartedly and that is that the souvenirs and merchandize can be bought in very reasonable rate if well thought-out and planned properly. The products found in the souvenir shops of Intramuros are somewhat the replica of what it was like during the Spanish Era. The products are used from recyclable materials and can be bought in reasonable rate.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Swot Analysis Of Dell Computer Essays - American Brands, Dell, Intel

Swot Analysis Of Dell Computer Essays - American Brands, Dell, Intel Swot Analysis Of Dell Computer SWOT analysis of Dell Computers History: The company was founded in 1984 by Michael Dell, now the computer industry's longest-tenured chief executive officer, on a simple concept: that by selling personal computer systems directly to customers, Dell could best understand their needs, and provide the most effective computing solutions to meet those needs. Today, Dell is enhancing and broadening the fundamental competitive advantages of the direct model by increasingly applying the efficiencies of the Internet to its entire business. Company revenue for the last four quarters totaled $19.9 billion. Through the direct business model, Dell offers in-person relationships with corporate and institutional customers; telephone and Internet purchasing (the latter now exceeding $18 million per day); customized computer systems; phone and online technical support; and next-day, on-site product service. Dell arranges for system installation and management, guides customers through technology transitions, and provides an extensive range of other services. The company designs and customizes products and services to the requirements of the organizations and individuals purchasing them, and sells an extensive selection of peripheral hardware and computing software. Nearly two-thirds of Dell's sales are to large corporations, government agencies and educational institutions. Dell also serves medium and small businesses and home-PC users. Dell's Unique Direct Model: Dell's award-winning customer service, industry-leading growth and consistently strong financial performance differentiate the company from competitors for the following reasons: Price for Performance With the industry's most efficient procurement, manufacturing and distribution process, Dell offers its customers powerful, richly configured systems at competitive prices. Customization Every Dell system is built to order. Customers get exactly what they want. Reliability, Service and Support Dell uses knowledge gained from direct customer contact before and after the sale to provide award-winning reliability and tailored customer service. Latest Technology Dell introduces the latest relevant technology much more quickly than companies with slow-moving indirect distribution channels. Dell turns over inventory every six days on average, keeping related costs low. Superior Shareholder Value During the last four quarters, the value of Dell common stock nearly doubled. From 1996 through 1998, Dell was the top-performing stock among the Standard & Poor's 500. Internet Leadership Sales via Dells Web site surpassed $18 million per day during early 1999, accounting for 30 percent of overall revenue. The company's application of the Internet to other parts of the business including procurement, customer support and relationship management is approaching the same 30-percent rate. The company's Web received 25 million visits at more than 50 country-specific sites last quarter. Timeline: 1984 Michael Dell founds Dell Computer Corporation 1985 Company introduces the first PC of its own design: the Turbo, featuring Intel 8088 processor running at eight megahertz 1987 Dell is first PC company to offer next-day, on-site product service International expansion begins with opening of subsidiary in United Kingdom 1988 To better meet unique customer needs, Dell begins to organize business around distinct customer segments Dell conducts initial public offering of company stock, 3.5 million shares at $8.50 each 1990 Manufacturing center in Limerick, Ireland, opened to serve European, Middle Eastern and African markets 1991 Company introduces its first notebook PC 1992 Dell included for first time among Fortune 500 roster of world's largest companies 1993 Dell joins ranks of the top-five PC makers worldwide Subsidiaries in Australia and Japan are company's first entries into Asia-Pacific region 1995 Original $8.50 shares of Dell stock worth $100 on presplit basis 1996 Asia-Pacific manufacturing center in Penang, Malaysia, opened Customers begin buying Dell computers via Internet at www.dell.com Dell begins major push into network-server market Company added to Standard & Poor's 500 stock index 1997 Company sales via Internet reach $1 million per day Dell ships its 10-millionth computer system Per-share value of common stock reaches $1,000 on presplit basis Dell introduces its first workstation systems 1998 Company expands manufacturing facilities in the Americas and Europe, and opens production and customer center in Xiamen, China Dell introduces PowerVault storage products 1999 Dell opens www.gigabuys.com, an online computer-related superstore Sales via Internet exceed $18 million per day Industry Outlook While the personal-computing market has expanded dramatically since the 1970s, Dell believes that the industry's best days and its own are yet to come, for two broad reasons. First, the stream of software and hardware innovation from companies such as

Monday, March 2, 2020

The Battle of Chippawa During the War of 1812

The Battle of Chippawa During the War of 1812 The Battle of Chippawa was fought on July 5, 1814, during the War of 1812 (1812-1815). Crossing the Niagara River in July 1814, American forces led by Major General Jacob Brown sought to capture the Niagara Peninsula and defeat British troops under Major General Phineas Riall. Responding, Riall moved against a detachment of Browns army led by Brigadier General Winfield Scott on July 5. Meeting near Chippawa Creek, Scotts well-drilled troops repulsed Rialls assault and drove the British from the field. The fighting at Chippawa showed that American troops were capable of standing up to British regulars. Uniting after the battle, Brown and Scott engaged Riall again on July 25 at the bloody Battle of Lundys Lane.   Background In the wake of a series of embarrassing defeats along the Canadian frontier, Secretary of War John Armstrong made several changes in the command structure of American forces in the north. Among those to benefit from Armstrongs changes were Jacob Brown and Winfield Scott who were raised to the ranks of major general and brigadier general. Given command of the Left Division of the Army of the North, Brown was tasked with training the men with the goal of launching an assault against the key British base at Kingston, ON and mounting a diversionary attack across the Niagara River. Major General Jacob Brown and Brigadier General Winfield Scott. Public Domain Preparations While planning moved forward, Brown ordered two Camps of Instruction formed at Buffalo and Plattsburgh, NY. Leading the Buffalo camp, Scott worked tirelessly drilling and instilling discipline in his men. Using the 1791 Drill Manual from the French Revolutionary Army, he standardized orders and maneuvers as well as purged incompetent officers. In addition, Scott instructed his men in proper camp procedures, including sanitation, which reduced disease and sickness. Intending his men to be clothed in the standard blue uniforms of the US Army, Scott was disappointed when insufficient blue material was found. While enough was located for the 21st U.S. Infantry, the remainder of the men at Buffalo were forced to make due with the gray uniforms that were typical of the American militia. While Scott worked at Buffalo through the spring of 1814, Brown was forced to alter his plans due to a lack of cooperation from Commodore Isaac Chauncey who commanded the American fleet on Lake Ontario. Browns Plan Rather than launch an assault against Kingston, Brown elected to make the attack across the Niagara his main effort. Training complete, Brown divided his army into two brigades under Scott and Brigadier General Eleazer Ripley. Recognizing Scotts ability, Brown assigned him four regiments of regulars and two companies of artillery. Moving across the Niagara River, Browns men attacked and quickly took lightly defended Fort Erie. The next day, Brown was reinforced by a mixed force of militia and Iroquois under Brigadier General Peter Porter. That same day, Brown instructed Scott to move north along the river with the goal of getting above Chippawa Creek before British forces could make a stand along its banks. Racing forward, Scott was not in time as scouts found Major General Phineas Rialls 2,100-men force massed just north of the creek. Retreating a south a short distance, Scott encamped below Streets Creek while Brown took the remainder of the army west with the goal of crossing the Chippawa further upstream. Not anticipating any action, Scott planned for a belated Independence Day parade on July 5. Major General Phineas Riall. Public Domain Fast Facts: Battle of Chippawa Conflict: War of 1812 (1812-1815)Dates: July 5, 1814Armies Commanders:United StatesMajor General Jacob BrownBrigadier General Winfield Scott3,500 menGreat BritainMajor General Phineas Riall2,100 menCasualties:United States: 61 killed and 255 woundedGreat Britain: 108 killed, 350 wounded, and 46 captured Contact is Made To the north, Riall, believing that Fort Erie was still holding out, planned to move south on July 5 with the goal of relieving the garrison. Early that morning, his scouts and Native American troops began skirmishing with the American outposts north and west of Streets Creek. Brown dispatched a contingent of Porters unit to drive off the Rialls men. Advancing, they beat back the skirmishers but spotted Rialls advancing columns. Retreating, they informed Brown of the British approach. At this time, Scott was moving his men over the creek in anticipation of their parade (Map). Scott Triumphs Informed of Rialls actions by Brown, Scott continued his advance and placed his four guns to the right along the Niagara. Extending his line west from the river, he deployed the 22nd Infantry on the right, with the 9th and 11th in the center, and the 25th on the left. Advancing his men in line of battle, Riall spotted the gray uniforms and anticipated an easy victory over what he believed to be militia. Opening fire with three guns, Riall was surprised by the resilience of the Americans and reportedly uttered, Those are regulars, by God! Pushing his men forward, Rialls lines became ragged as his men moved over uneven terrain. As the lines neared, the British halted, fired a volley, and continued their advance. Seeking a quick victory, Riall ordered his men to surge forward, opening a gap on his right flank between the end of his line and a nearby wood. Seeing an opportunity, Scott advanced and turned the 25th to take Rialls line in the flank. As they poured a devastating fire into the British, Scott sought to trap the enemy. Wheeling the 11th to the right and the 9th and 22nd into the left, Scott was able to strike the British on three sides. After absorbing a pounding from Scotts men for around twenty-five minutes, Riall, whose coat had been pierced by a bullet, ordered his men to retreat. Covered by their guns and the 1st Battalion of the 8th Foot, the British withdrew back towards the Chippawa with Porters men harassing their rear. Aftermath The Battle of Chippawa cost Brown and Scott 61 killed and 255 wounded, while Riall suffered 108 killed, 350 wounded, and 46 captured. Scotts victory ensured the progress of Browns campaign and the two armies met again on July 25 at the Battle of Lundys Lane. The victory at Chippawa was a turning point for the US Army and showed that American soldiers could defeat the veteran British with proper training and leadership. Legend states that the gray uniforms worn by the cadets at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point are meant to commemorate Scotts men at Chippawa, though this is disputed. The battlefield is currently preserved as Chippawa Battlefield Park and is administered through the Niagara Parks Commission.

Friday, February 14, 2020

The role of entrepenurship in the 1860-1900 and the role of technolgy Essay

The role of entrepenurship in the 1860-1900 and the role of technolgy in railroads and government influence and tariff policys a - Essay Example The demand for steel and oil hit an all time high. This industry had very renowned personalities (Link and Susannah 34). These included John D. Rockefeller who dealt in oil and Andrew Carnegie, who dealt in steel. These individuals went by the name of robber barons because people believed that they got their wealth through unscrupulous business deals. It is Gilded Age because of the notable fortunes realized in the period and people’s improved level of affordability. It is during Gilded Age that the United States shifted from an agricultural society to an urban industrial society. This was as a result of massive movement of people to cities after the Civil War. In 1860, only twenty percent of people in the U.S.A lived in cities. This number grew to forty percent in 1900. Cities provided a place of adventure for young people who left the countryside to go to towns and cities. This heightened modernization in the U.S.A as more skyscrapers came up department stores emerged and, t elephone and electric lamps installed. Consumerism and middle classes emerged as a result of industrialization and immigration into cities (Meyer 61). Technology and expansion of railroad Railroad was perhaps the single most important factor that transformed industrial cities in the West in the 1800s. The advanced technology of the time enabled the building of railroads that helped ease transportation around the U.S.A and made travelling safe and cheap. Transcontinental lines helped move grain, people, ore, cattle, and equipment to and from across the Midwest. Railroad passed through Rocky Mountains, Sierra Nevada and the fertile areas of California and Oregon (Link and Susannah 35). The building of railroads transport transformed the landscape of the West. Bison travelled across the Great Plains to provide food and clothing to Native American tribes. Railroads destroyed Bison’s habitat and brought sport hunters to their environment. Americans killed many Bison and by 1885, o nly 1,000 Bison survived. There were other things that contributed to the expansion of railroads in the U.S.A. One important factor was the Civil War. The Civil War caused an increase in U.S.A’s industrial production leaving it among the world’s leading industrial producers in the 1890. The war also accelerated the growth of corporations as it demanded more consumer goods and services. The growth and popularity of money capital also contributed greatly to the expansion of railroads as it attracted foreign investors into American economy. Consequently, more people increased their investment in capitalist ventures. Government support of business also had an impact on the growth of railroads in America (Meyer 62). The government donated enormous land to railroad companies for the expansion of railroad transport. Pullman sleeper car complemented the development of railroad transport by increasing railroad passengers’ comfort. Double sets of tracks took the place of a single set track system. This enabled two-way rail traffic with snarl-up. Iron rails gave way to steel rails that could handle heavy weight loads. The development of locomotive tenders enabled the use of coal to power trains. Coal took the place of wood as it was more efficient than wood. Coal power cut on the number of times trains had to stop and refuel (Link and Susannah 36). After Westinghouse got patent rights for air brakes, mechanical brakes paved the way for air brakes. Air brakes allowed for